U.S. Court Orders NSO Group to Hand Over Pegasus Spyware Code to WhatsApp

Bar Refael

March 3, 2024

A U.S. judge has mandated that NSO Group, an Israeli spyware vendor, surrender the source code for its Pegasus spyware and other products to Meta (formerly Facebook), the parent company of WhatsApp. This ruling is part of Meta’s lawsuit against NSO Group, initiated in October 2019, for exploiting WhatsApp’s infrastructure to distribute the spyware to around 1,400 mobile devices, including those of Indian activists and journalists. The attacks exploited a zero-day flaw (CVE-2019-3568) in WhatsApp’s voice call functionality to deliver Pegasus without the recipient answering the call.

Key Points:

  • Legal Victory for Meta: The court’s decision is a significant win for Meta in its ongoing litigation against NSO Group.
  • Scope of Court Order: NSO Group is required to provide information on the full functionality of the relevant spyware for a specified period, but it is not obligated to disclose its server architecture or the identities of its clients.
  • Privacy Concerns: Meta is under scrutiny in the European Union for its subscription model, which forces users to choose between paying a fee or consenting to be tracked, raising concerns about privacy as a fundamental right.
  • Predator Spyware: Recent reports by Recorded Future and Sekoia have revealed a new multi-tiered delivery infrastructure associated with Predator, another spyware managed by the Intellexa Alliance, with customers in various countries.


  • Legal and Ethical Ramifications: The court’s decision highlights the ongoing legal and ethical challenges associated with the use of spyware by governments and private entities.
  • Privacy and Security Concerns: The case underscores the importance of protecting user privacy and security in the digital age, as well as the need for robust cybersecurity measures to prevent unauthorized access and exploitation.
  • International Cybersecurity Landscape: The involvement of multiple countries in the use of Predator spyware indicates a complex international cybersecurity landscape, with implications for global digital security and diplomacy.


  • Enhanced Cybersecurity Measures: Organizations should implement comprehensive cybersecurity measures to protect against spyware and other malicious threats.
  • Legal and Regulatory Compliance: Companies should ensure compliance with legal and regulatory requirements related to privacy and data protection.
  • Awareness and Education: Users should be educated about the risks associated with spyware and the importance of maintaining digital privacy and security.


The U.S. court’s order for NSO Group to hand over its Pegasus spyware code to Meta marks a significant development in the battle against malicious spyware. It highlights the ongoing challenges in balancing national security, privacy, and legal considerations in the digital realm. As the cybersecurity landscape continues to evolve, it is crucial for stakeholders to remain vigilant and proactive in addressing these complex issues.

Stay Secure. Stay Informed.

OP Innovate Research Team.

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